大东方公司:Basic Facts

Shuangyashan City is in the northeast of Heilongjiang Province, located in the north of Wanda Mountain, in the hinterland of Sanjiang Plain. There are two mountains in the shape of lying ducks the northeastern part of the city, so it got the name “Shuangyashan” . Mines were built in 1947, and the city was built in 1956. The city has an administrative area of 22,500 kilometers, with a population of 1.51 million. It administrates four districts and four counties, with 42 towns and 415 villages. The four districts are Jianshan, Lingdong, Sifangtai and Baoshan, and the four counties are Jixian, Youyi, Baoqing and Raohe.

Shuangyashan has rich mineral resources. The city has five coal mines— Shuangyashan, Jixian, Baoqing, Qixinghe and Shuanghua. It has coal reserves of 11.7 billion tons, which accounts for 47% of total reserves of Heilongjiang Province, ranking first in the province. The city also has the province's largest magnetite mine, with the reserves of 120 million tons. It has abundant mineral resources with high value for development like white tungsten, graphite, sillimanite, marble, basalt and etc. There are 9 state-owned coal mines, 2 power plants and one steel corporation, and a comprehensive capacity of 24 million tons of coal, 2.49 million kilowatts of electricity and 2 million tons of steel has formed. It is an important production base of coal, electricity and steel of Heilongjiang Province. A number of large modern mines and coal chemical projects are speeding up including coal to aromatics, coal to olefins, indirect coal liquefaction, Fischer Tropsch synthesis oil, coal and natural gas, underground coal gasification and etc. And it is making great progress towards the realization of building the national innovative coal chemical base.

The ecological environment is good. There are 43 state-owned forest farms in Shuangyashan, and the city's forest coverage rate reaches 40%. It has the No 1. Peak in Sanjiang Plain—The Qixing Peak, Wandashan National Forest Park, Qingshan National Forest Park, and the National Black Bee Nature Reserve of Northeast China. There is the largest marsh wetland group in China—he Sanjiang Plain wetland group, and wetlands like Qixing River Wetland, Yanwo Island Wetland, Naoli River Wetland and etc. are the best preserved and most primitive and typical marsh wetland in Sanjiang Plain. There is Qixing River National Wetland Nature Reserve, Naoli River National Wetland Nature Reserve, Wusuli River National Wetland Park, Qianniao Lake National Wetland Park, Anbang River National Wetland Park, 4A Yanwo Island Wetland National Tourism Scenic Spot, Qianniao Lake Wetland National Tourism Scenic Spot, Anbang River Wetland National Tourism Scenic Spot, 3A Qixing River Wetland National Tourism Scenic Spot and etc. There is one big river and 55 rivers of different sizes in Shuangyashan, with the water area of 946 square kilometers. The Sino-Russian border river—the Wusuli River is a non-polluted river.

Shuangyashan has a solid agriculture foundation. Shuangyashan City is located in one of the three famous big black soil regions in the world. Black soil in the cold region is fertile. There are 12 state-owned farms in the city, and the city's arable land area is 13.33 million acres, 14.7 acres of arable land per capita, which is 2.4 times of the arable land per capita of the province and 5.1 times of the arable land per capita of China. The city's agricultural mechanization rate reaches 93.5%, with an average annual yield of over 14 billion pounds. It produces soybean, rice, corn, white melon seeds, red bean and other high-quality green special crops. It is an important commodity grain base in Heilongjiang Province and organic food base certified by EU.

It is close to Russia. Shuangyashan City is close to Russia which is across the Wusuli River. On the other side of the river, Far East of Russia is rich in resources like coal, iron, manganese, gold and other mineral and forest and aquatic products. These resources are within the distance of eight hours, and is beneficial for “processing the imported products locally”. Shuangyashan has a national first-class port —Raohe Port, and the Russia Bikin Port is only 760 meters away. It is the nearest port to Russia in Heilongjiang Province except Heihe. Within 300 kilometers in the surrounding, there are five national Sino-Russia ports —Mingshan, Tongjiang, Fuyuan, Hulin, Mishan. Those five ports form a fan-shaped area, having exchanges and communication with the Far East of Russia. There are five international trade channels of land, river and sea including Shuang, Tong, Rao, Fu (to Tongjiang, Raohe, Fuyuan) and air international trade channel. It is an important gateway of interconnection between mainland China and Russian Far East. A number of large Sino-Russia economic and trade projects including the International Cultural Trade Logistics Industrial Park, Sida China International Trade Center, and Sino-Russian Trade Zones and a number of Sino-Russia import and export production and processing base of fruits, vegetables, mushrooms, meat, aquatic products are speeding up the construction process. It has opened international passenger and freight transport routes including the Shuangyashan—Khabarovsk route, the Shuangyashan—Birobidzhan route and etc. The foundation of opening is getting more solid.

Shuangyashan has a long history and rich culture. Shuangyashan City was the political, economic, cultural and military center of Heilongjiang area 1700 years ago in the Han and Wei dynasties. It is the birthplace of Manchu ancestors Sushen and Yilou people, and there are more than 780 cultural sites from the Warring States period to the period of the Three Kingdoms. The Fenglin Old City and Ruins of the Ancient City Paotaishan are the largest and highest and most representative of this period. There is “the best farm in the world”—Youyi Farm and the relic of the Northeast Anti Japanese united forces led by Cui Yongjian and Chen Lei. The city has a long history, with Yilou culture, culture of the anti-Japaneses united forces, culture of coal city, culture of reclamation, culture of educated youth and etc.

Shuangyashan is accelerating the pace of transformation. In recent years, Shuangyashan City has seized the historic opportunity of the country’s vigorously supporting the revitalization of Northeast Old Industrial Base, the opportunity of constructing the economic corridor of China, Mongolia and Russia, the opportunity of implementing the “Five Plan” of Heilongjiang Province and the opportunity of constructing the “Longjiang Silk Belt”. With the transformation development as the main line, it is accelerating a number of city construction projects including coal-electricity-chemical, green food, iron and steel metallurgy, trade with Russia and etc., and preliminarily achieved the transformation from a “coal dominant city” to a “multi-industry city”. At present, as motivation, the people of the city are studying and implementing the spirit of the important speech delivered by General Secretary Xi Jinping when attending the deliberations of Heilongjiang delegation, and comprehensively promote the implementation of the “13th Five-Year” city planning in accordance with the arrangement of Heilongjiang Provincial Party Committee. The people of the city establish the “Five Development Ideas”, and grasp the situation of the city scientifically. They make best use of the advantages and bypass the disadvantages, focusing on the economic construction. They make every effort to speed up the development of the coal-electricity-chemical industry, metallurgical circulation industry, high quality and efficient modern agriculture, green food processing industry, the black soil wetland tourism industry in the Great Northern Wilderness, export-oriented industry and modern service industry chain, striving to build the modern coal electricity chemical and steel industry demonstration zone, the organic food industry gathering area, black soil wetland tourism core area and the foreign trade service area. They reform and upgrade the traditional energy, foster and develop new energy, and struggle to create a new path of a comprehensive revitalization and achieve the transformation and development of the the original resource-based city.

Geography and Landforms

Shuangyashan City is located in the northeast of Heilongjiang Province, between 130°54′ to 134°46′east longitude, 46°20′to 48°52′north latitude. It is located in the northern low hilly area of Wanda Mountains, north to the vast hinterland of the Sanjiang Plain, and the south is the continuous mountains. The terrain is high in southwest and low in the northeast, and it is 460 kilometers from the provincial capital—Harbin City. In the east, it is close to Bikin City of the Khabarovsk of Russia which is across the Wusuli River. In the South it is next to the to Hulin, Mishan, and Hua’nan County; in the west it is next to Jiamusi City and Qitaihe city and in the north is next to Fujin City, Tongjiang City, Fuyuan County, Huachuan county. The city is located in the Wanda foothills, lying on the Anbang River.

Shuangyashan City administrates four districts and four counties, with 57 towns in total. The four districts are Jianshan, Lingdong, Sifangtai and Baoshan, and the four counties are Jixian, Baoqing, Youyi and Raohe. There are 12 state-owned farms and 40 state-owned forest farms in the administrative area. The total area of Shuangyashan City is 22483 square kilometers, of which 1767 square kilometers are urban area, and 81.5 square kilometers are built -up area. It has a population of 1.51 million, with 670,000 people in the urban area, and 350,000 in the built-up area.

Shuangyashan City is located in the northeast of Heilongjiang Province, between 130°54′ to 134°46′east longitude, 46°20′to 48°52′north latitude. It is located in the northern low hilly area of Wanda Mountains, north to the vast hinterland of the Sanjiang Plain, and the south is the continuous mountains. The terrain is high in southwest and low in the northeast, and it is 460 kilometers from the provincial capital—Harbin City. In the east, it is close to Bikin City of the Khabarovsk of Russia which is across the Wusuli River. In the South it is next to the to Hulin, Mishan, and Hua’nan County; in the west it is next to Jiamusi City and Qitaihe city and in the north is next to Fujin City, Tongjiang City, Fuyuan County, Huachuan county. The city is located in the Wanda foothills, lying on the Anbang River.

Shuangyashan City administrates four districts and four counties, with 57 towns in total. The four districts are Jianshan, Lingdong, Sifangtai and Baoshan, and the four counties are Jixian, Baoqing, Youyi and Raohe. There are 12 state-owned farms and 40 state-owned forest farms in the administrative area. The total area of Shuangyashan City is 22483 square kilometers, of which 1767 square kilometers are urban area, and 81.5 square kilometers are built -up area. It has a population of 1.51 million, with 670,000 people in the urban area, and 350,000 in the built-up area.

Shuangyashan City is one of the ten big coal mines, coal reserves ranking first in Heilongjiang Province. It is a resource-based city, emerging mainly on coal, electricity, grain, iron and steel. It is known as the “the kingdom of Yilou, the capital of wetland, the base of coal, and the granary of the north.” It is the only city with the integration of big coal, big granary, big forests, big wetlands and big farms in Heilongjiang Province.

The big coal field of Shuangyashan is rich. Shuangyashan City is one of the most important coal production bases in China. The proven coal reserves are 11.7 billion tons, ranking first in Heilongjiang Province, accounting for 50% of Heilongjiang Province's coal reserves. There is iron, gold, white tungsten and other rich mineral resources in the region.

The granaries are vast. Shuangyashan City is an important grain producing area in China. The city's arable land area is over 13 million acres, with an annual output of 4 billion jin of grain, and the green planting area is about 1.4 million acres.

The vast forests are boundless. The forest is dense and the total forest area is 860,000 hectares, and the forest coverage rate reached 38.7%. Nature reserve area is 729,000 hectares.

The expanse of wetlands is vast. The wetland area is 153,000 hectares, accounting for 6.8% of the city's area. There are three wetland protection areas, with a total area of 480,000 hectares.

The big boundary river offers an magnificent scenery. Shuangyashan is close to Russia which is across the Wusuli River. The border line is 128 kilometers long. Raohe Port is an important gateway from the mainland to the Russian Far East, with port capacity more than one million tons. The nearly non-polluted Wusuli River offers an exquisite and magic scenery on both sides.

Historical Evolution

Shuangyashan is located in the hinterland of the Sanjiang Plain, which was called “the Great Northern Wilderness” in the past. But archaeologists has confirmed that “the Great Northern Wilderness” was not real wilderness. Human beings inhabited and bred here dating from the late Paleolithic period 3,0000 years ago. Shuangyashan area was the activity area for the ancient Sushen people in the Shang and Zhou dynasties.《The Classic of Mountains and Rivers,the Classic of Dahuangbei,》records: “In the wilderness, there was a mountain called Buxian Mountain, and the Sushen State was there.”Buxian Mountain is now called the Changbai Mountain. According to research, the Sushen tribe lived in the area from Heilongjiang basin to the coastal region (including the Shuangyashan area).《Records of Jin Dynasty,Biography of Four Minor Ethnic Groups》recorded that the territory of Sushen People was in the north mountain of the Buxian Mountains (Heilongjiang), and the land was vast and covered thousands of miles.

The names of the Sushen tribe changed with the change of dynasties, and the subordination of the Shuangyashan area changed with the change of time. In the middle of the Western Han Dynasty, Sushen was renamed Yilou. In the South and North Dynasties and the North Wei Dynasty, Yilou was renamed Wuji, Shuangyashan district was part of Wujifuniebu. In the Sui Dynasty, Wuji in the east of Heilongjiang basin was renamed Mohe. In the Tang Dynasty, Shuangyashan belonged to the Huaiyuanfu of Bohai State. In the Liao Dynasty, Shuangyashan region belonged to the Wuguobu of the Jurchen. In the Jin Dynasty, Shuangyashan area was under the jurisdiction of Huligailu administered by Shangjinglu.At the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, Shuangyashan area was under the jurisdiction of Kaiyuanlu of Liaoyang Province.In the medium-term it was under the jurisdiction of Shuidadalu of Helanfu.In the Ming Dynasty, Shuangyashan was under the jurisdiction of Futiwei of Nuergandusi. At the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, Shuangyashan area was under the jurisdiction of Angbangzhangjing of Shengjing. In the 10th year of Shunzhi’s reign (1653), Angbangzhangjing of Ningguta was established and Shuangyashan area was under the jurisdiction of Angbangzhangjing of Ningguta. In the first year of Kangxi’s reign (1662) Angbangzhangjing of Ningguta was changed to the Ninguta General,and the Shuangyashan area was under the jurisdiction of Ningguta General.In the 15th year of Kangxi’s reign (1676) , Ningguta General transferred to station Jilinwula (now Jilin city), and vice president of Ninguta was established.The Shuangyashan area was directly under the jurisdiction of the vice president of Ningguta. In November of the ninth year of Yongzheng’s reign (1731), Sanxing deputy lieutenant-general was established,and the Shuangyashan area were under the jurisdiction of Sanxing deputy lieutenant-general.In the 22nd year of Qianlong’s reign (1757) ,General of Ningguta was changed to Jilin General, and Sanxing deputy lieutenant-general was led by the Jinlin General. On 22nd of the first lunar month of 32 years of Guangxu’s reign(1906), Yilanfu was established in the area of the Sanxing deputy lieutenant-general, and Linjiangzhou was established in Halasusu (now Tongjiang County).Shuangyashan area was under the jurisdiction of Linjiangzhou.In the 33rd year of Guangxu’ reign (1907), Jilin General was dismissed and Jinlin Province was established. On April 15th of the first year of Xuantong’s reign (1909), Sanxing deputy lieutenant-general was dismissed;at the same time Linjiangzhou was promoted to Linjiangfu, and Fujin County was established in Fukejin.The Shuangyashan area was in the jurisdiction of Manchukuo Fujin county.

In the first year of the Republic of China (1912), system of the Qing Dynasty was followed. On January 23rd of the second year of the Republic of China (1913), the government decided to eliminate the system of Dao,Fu,Ting and Zhou ,and set up the state system of province, Dao and county. Shuangyashan area was under the jurisdiction of Wuqu of Fujin County, Yilan Dao, Jilin province. In 1931,the “September 18th Incident” occurred, and the Japanese imperialists occupied the northeast of China. On the following year, Fujin county was occupied by the enemy. In 1934, the Shuangyashan area was under the jurisdiction of Fujin County of Manchukuo Sanjiang Province. On August 15th, 1945, Japan surrendered and the Northeast of China recovered. On November 21st, the Communist Party established the government of Hejiang Province in Jiamusi. On June 10th, 1946, the government of Hejiang Province set up Jixian County in the southwest of Fujin County (the fourth area and fifth area), and Shuangyashan area was under the jurisdiction of the Jixian County. On June 5th, 1947, the government of Hejiang Province established the province-owned enterprises Shuangyashan Mining Bureau in Lingdong (Fu'an coal)of Shuangyashan. In 1949 the Bureau of Mines of Shuangyashan moved to Jianshan from Lingdong. On April 21st, 1949, Hejiang Province merged into Songjiang Province, and Shuangyashan Mining Bureau shifted to the leadership of Songjiang Province Industry Office. In March 1951, the Shuangyashan Bureau of Mines changed into “state-owned enterprise” from “province-owned enterprise”, in the leadership of the Coal Mine Management Bureau of Northeast People's Government Industrial Office. In December 1953, the Northeast Administrative Committee approved that Shuangyashan mine area set up a county-level people's government( formally established in July 1954), with the Shuangyashan area in Jixian county as its administrative region, in the direct leadership of Songjiang Province. In the August of the following year, Songjiang Province merged into Heilongjiang Province, so Shuangyashan mining area was under the jurisdiction of Heilongjiang Province. On May 25th, 1956, the State Council decided to withdraw the Shuangyashan Mining Area,and establish Shuangyashan City, with the administrative region of Shuangyashan mining area as the administrative region of Shuangyashan City, which was directly under the jurisdiction of Heilongjiang Province.On August 16th, 1958, the State Council decided to put Shuangyashan City directly under the jurisdiction of Hejiang instead of directly under the jurisdiction of the province. In February 8th, 1966, the CPC Heilongjiang Provincial Committee and Provincial People's Committee decided to put Shuangyashan directly under the jurisdiction of the province instead of the jurisdiction of Hejiang. On March 29th, 1967, the Revolutionary Committee of Shuangyashan City was established and it replaced the Shuangyashan People's Committee, led by the Revolutionary Committee of Heilongjiang Province. On September 22nd, 1980, the Revolutionary Committee of Shuangyashan was changed into the Shuangyashan People's Government, led by the People's Government of Heilongjiang Province.

Since the December 1953 when the northeast Administrative Committee approved the establishment of Shuangyashan Mining People's Government, the administrative division of Shuangyashan City has formed and developed gradually from small to large with the development of the coal resources and the needs of the situation. In 1954, every district was called the District Public Office, under the jurisdiction of the Shuangyashan Mining District Government; In 1956, every district was renamed the Office of the Street, under the jurisdiction of the Shuangyashan People's Committee; in 1959,the urban district merged with the coal mine, every district was called the Economic Zone; in 1961 the urban district and the coal mine separated, and every district was called a branch; in 1970, the urban district merged with the coal mine,and every district was called the Revolutionary Committee; in 1971,the urban district merged with the coal mine and every district was called the Mining Revolutionary Committee; in 1980,every district was called District People's Government. On April 15th,1980, approved by the Provincial People's Government, Shuangyashan City established five districts—Jianshan, Lingdong, Lingxi, Sifangtai,and Baoshan; on November 6th,1987, approved by the State Council, Jixian County which belonged to the Jiamusi city changed to the jurisdiction of Shuangyashan City,and Lingxi merged into Lingdong district.On December 4th of the same year, the provincial government decided to put Qixing town of Youyi county under the jurisdiction of Shuangyashan City. On February 2, 1991, approved by the State Council, ,Baoqing County and Youyi County of Jiamusi city was put under the jurisdiction of Shuangyashan City. On August 1st, 1993, approved by the State Council, Raohe county which was under the jurisdiction of the city Jiamusi was put under the jurisdiction of Shuangyashan City.

At present, Shuangyashan City administrates four districts and four counties. The four districts are Jianshan District, Lingdong District, Sifangtai District,and Baoshan District, and the four counties are Jixian County, Baoqing County, Youyi County and Raohe County. There are 8 state-owned coal mines, 12 state-owned farms and 75 state-owned forest farms in the administrative area. The total area of the city is 22,000 square kilometers, with a total population of 1.47 million people.